The Insecticidal Potential of Pandan Leaf against Cockroach
Presented To the High School Department
Of Colegio De Santa Ana
In Taguig City
In Partial Fulfillment of
The Requirements in
Renz Carlo P. Reyes
4th year St. Thomas the Apostle
I would like to thank the following people:
Mrs. Mariden Tee for allowing me to conduct this investigatory project.
Friends and Classmates for helping me in looking and providing the materials I needed.
Lord for giving me the opportunity to live and conduct this thing.
Seven compounds and fractions prepared from pandan leaves (P. amaryllifolius) were evaluated for repellent activity against Blattella germanica (L.) using a modification of the linear tract olfactometer. 2-Acetyl-1-pyrroline, pandan essence and the hexane-pandan extract were repellent (65-93 % repellency) at all concentrations tested; the acetone-pandan extract was attractive at increasing concentrations (minimum of 62 % attractancy); artificial pandan flavouring and the dichloromethane-pandan extract gave erratic results. Undiluted crude aqueous pandan extract displayed an attractancy of 62%. The potential of P. amaryllifolius as a natural and environmentally friendly pest management tool is discussed.
Background of the Study
The purpose of this study is that to prove whether pandan leaves are effective cockroach repellent of not. It also aims to find out what are the ways in creating an insect repellent using pandan leaves. The future researchers may use this as their reference in creating their own investigatory project.
Statement of Problem
This researcher intended to find out the answers stood out in this study:
Are pandan leaves effective cockroaches repellent?
The following objectives are stated below:
To prove that pandan leaves are effective cockroach repellents.
Significance of the Study
The investigator believed that this study will help future researcher in conducting the same topic. Also, it will inform the readers that pandan leaves can be cockroach repellents aside that it is used as rice fragrant.
Chapter TWO – Review of Related Literature and Studies
Pandan leaves come from the Pandanus amaryllifolius shrub, also known as the dwarf or fragrant screw pine. This sprawling perennial plant is native to southeast Asia and has been introduced in other tropical regions. It produces spirally arranged leaves about 1 to 1 1/2 inches wide and up to 18 inches in length. They have a strong, sweet fragrance and are often used to scent and flavor food. Many people in the pandan's native region use the leaves to repel insect pests.
In Southeast Asia, homeowners and business owners use bunches of pandan leaves to repel cockroaches. For instances, according to a 2009 study by researchers at the National University of Singapore, taxi drivers in Malaysia and Singapore hang these leaves in their vehicles to keep pest insects from colonizing the warm, dark interior of the car. Fresh pandan leaves are preferred, since dried leaves quickly lose their aromatic qualities. Wintergreen oil may be added to cut pandan leaves to enhance their smell and assumed repellent activity, according to "Plant Resources of South-East Asia."
Pandan leaves contain a number of essential oils and chemicals that cockroaches find unpleasant. Terpenes and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons make up between 6 and 42 percent of the oils in these leaves, according to the National University of Singapore researchers. Pandan also contains 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, or 2AP, a substance that repels both American and German cockroach species in test studies.
While pandan leaves contain substances repellent to cockroaches, they actually discourage these insects at a lower rate than other plants from the same geographical region. Pandan leaves are less potent than lemongrass, cinnamon, clove, ginger and turmeric, requiring a greater concentration of their essential oils to have the same effect. Chemically-extracted oils tend to produce a greater repellent effect than the leaves themselves, but the extraction process sometimes degrades the repellent chemicals. The Singapore study recommends using a combination of 2AP and pandan essence for best effect.
Since pandan leaves are a natural product, their concentration of useful aromatic chemicals can vary significantly from one plant to the next. Even when fresh leaves produce an insect-repellent effect, this may not be reliable or easy to duplicate. Pandan essences and extracts produce a more reliable repellent effect, as long as their concentrations of essential oils have been tested and normalized. In general, stronger-smelling leaves offer greater repellent ability.
Chapter Three – methodology
Materials / Equipments
Test Insect (Cockroach)
3-5 pandan leaves
1) Cut 2-inches of pandan leaves or tie a loose knot around 3-5 leaves.
2) Place it on the test area wherever you prefer.
3) Change the leaves when the fragrance diminishes.
4) Observe what will happen
This study has only covered the repellent effects of various components found in the candidate plant, P. amaryllifolius, but not on the intact plant. Although both attractive and repellent compounds are present in the plant, it is likely that the proportion of repellent components in mature pandan leaves outweighs that of its attractive counterparts. Hence, bunches of pandan leaves can possibly work well for taxi drivers as the leaves are usually left to dry out at the back of the taxi, evaporating the water and volatile compounds in the leaves. Since leaves are contained within the small confines of the taxi, its scented, cockroach-repellent volatile compounds can permeate the air and possibly be concentrated enough to repel cockroaches.